If you're noticing white build up or powder on your succulents, it could be a few different things. It may mean your succulent needs to be treated, but in other cases your succulent is completely fine.
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One of the most common succulent pests is mealybugs. These nasty little guys often look like thick cobwebs between your succulents leaves. They spread quickly so you'll want to isolate and treat your succulents right away if you see them.
Get more details about how to treat mealy bugs here.
Natural Farina and Coating
Some succulents like Echeverias and Kalanchoe lucaie have a naturally occuring waxy build up that helps protect the leaves from sunburn and allows water to run off the leaves more easily.
The farina is really important to your Echeveria staying healthy, so try not to touch or rub the leaves as this can easily remove the farina.
Once removed, it will not grow back on those leaves, though new leaves will have it.
For Kalanchoe luciae, the powdery build up (called "bloom") looks even more problematic and it can sometimes be difficult to tell if it has mealy bugs or not.
However, it is completely natural for this Kalanchoe and shouldn't be removed, just like the farina on Echeveria succulents.
If you're worried it could be mealy bugs, start by using a stream nozzle attachment on your hose (or even a spray bottle) and try to wash off the build up. This won't remove the healthy "bloom" but would help remove any mealy bugs.
Mineral Build Up
If you're using tap water on your succulents, it's likely that overtime you'll notice some mineral build up on your succulents. This seems to happen most with Jade plants and Haworthias.
Jade plants will often get white spots in the "pores" or dimples on their leaves. You can simply wipe it off and the plant will continue to grow as normal. It will not generally harm the plant even if you leave it on.
Haworthias and Haworthiopsis plants will sometimes get a crusty build up of minerals near the base of their rosettes. Sometimes this can turn an orange or yellow over time.
Just like with the Jades, it's not a problem for the Haworthia but you can wipe or brush it off if it becomes unsightly.
Watering with hard water is ok for succulents (I've been doing it for years), but if you find you get a lot of build up you can switch to using filtered or distilled water. I recommend avoiding soft water as the extra salts can cause changes in the soil pH which can be challenging for succulents.
Most succulents won't get powdery mildew, but it is a possibility for some varieties.
Powdery mildew will show up as a white coating on the leaves that gets splotchy and appears in patches.
Usually powdery mildew occurs when the soil stays wet for too long or if water stays on your succulent leaves for a long period of time.