Most succulents should survive the heat if, like you mentioned, they are kept somewhere cool and shady during the hottest times of day.
If you have succulents planted in containers, they’re going to heat up and dry out faster than succulents planted in the ground. This is because pottery heats up faster than the ground.
You’ll likely need to increase your watering schedule when it’s that hot, whether you have succulents in containers or in the ground. This will ensure that the roots stay cool, and the leaves plump. It’s also best to water in the morning so the soil starts out the day cool.
Sometimes, even after you’ve done all you can to protect your plants and keep them cool, they get exposed to too much sun and become sunburned. You can’t reverse the damage done by this, but you can remove any leaves that bother you.
If you’re still having trouble keeping your succulents happy, it may be that the succulents you have planted just don’t tolerate heat well. Some, like Aeoniums, like to be kept cooler, while Cacti, Aloes, and Agave do well in heat. Identifying your plants’ needs will keep them happier during the summer months.